A laryngologist is a surgeon who treats disorders of voice, breathing and swallowing. To become a laryngologist, a physician first completes a five year residency in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. This is then followed by a one-year fellowship in Laryngology. The field of Laryngology is relatively new as there are less than 25 fellowship programs in the United States. Time during this fellowship is spent concentrating on medical and surgical management of voice, breathing and swallowing conditions as well as performing research within the discipline. The additional year of training allows a laryngologist to focus on the detailed anatomy of the larynx and pharynx in order to provide advanced care for voice, breathing, and swallowing conditions.